History Of Junagarh Fort Bikaner

Junagarh Fort Bikaner

Junagarh Fort is a stronghold in the city of Bikaner, Rajasthan, India. The fortification was initially called Chintamani and was renamed Junagarh or “Old Fort” in the mid-twentieth century when the decision family moved to Lalgarh Palace outside as far as possible. It is one of only a handful of significant fortifications in Rajasthan which isn’t based on a peak. The advanced city of Bikaner has been created around the post. 

The stronghold complex was worked under the oversight of Karan Chand, the Prime Minister of Raja Rai Singh, the 6th leader of Bikaner, who managed from 1571 to 1611 AD. Development of the dividers and related canals started in 1589 and was finished in 1594. It was worked outside the first stronghold of the city (the primary fortification worked by Rao Bikaji), about 1.5 kilometers (0.93 mi) from the downtown area. A few reminders of the old post are safeguarded close to the Lakshmi Narayan sanctuary. 

Chronicled records uncover that regardless of the rehashed assaults by foes to catch the stronghold, it was not taken, with the exception of a solitary one-day occupation by Kamran Mirza. Kamran was the second child of the Mughal Emperor Babur who assaulted Bikaner in 1534, which was then managed by Rao Jait Singh.

The 5.28 hectares enormous fortification region is studded with royal residences, sanctuaries, and structures. These structures portray a composite culture, shown in the blend of building styles.


Before the present Junagarh Fort was assembled, an old stone post existed around there. This stronghold was implicit in 1478 by Rao Bika who set up the city of Bikaner in 1472. Rao Bika was the second child of Maharaja Rao Jodha of the Rathor tribe, the organizer of Jodhpur city. He vanquished the huge parched terrains toward the northern area of Rajasthan to set up his space. As the second child of Jodha, he got no opportunity of acquiring his dad’s region of Jodhpur or to the title of Maharaja. He, along these lines, accommodated and chose to construct his own realm at Bikaner at the spot at that point called “Bangladesh”. Bikaner, however, a somewhat of the Thar Desert, was viewed as a desert garden on the shipping lane between Central Asia and the Gujarat coast since it had satisfactory spring water sources. Bika’s name was consequently labeled to the Bikaner city just as to them at that point province of Bikaner (“the settlement of Bika”) that he set up. The historical backdrop of Bikaner and the fortress inside it in this manner start with Bika. It was uniquely around 100 years after the fact that Bikaner’s fortunes prospered under Raja Rai Singhji, the 6th leader of Bikaner, who administered from 1571 to 1611. During the Mughal Empire’s standard in the country, he acknowledged the suzerainty of the Mughals and stood firm on a high footing of a military general in the court of Emperor Akbar and his child Emperor Jahangir. His effective conflict abuses via winning the Mewar realm won him awards and prizes from the Mughal heads. He was skilled in the jagirs (lands) of Gujarat and Burhanpur. With the huge income procured from these jagirs, he fabricated the Junagarh post on plain land, which has a normal rise of 760 feet (230 m). The conventional establishment service for the post was hung on 17 February 1589 and the fortification was finished on 17 January 1594. Raja Rai Singhji was a specialist in expressions and engineering and the information that he obtained during his few stays to a few nations are sufficiently reflected in the various landmarks he worked in the Junagarh post. Hence the stronghold, a composite construction, turned into an extraordinary illustration of engineering and a special focus of workmanship, in the midst of the Thar desert. 

Karan Singh who governed from 1631 to 1639, under the suzerainty of the Mughals, constructed the Karan Mahal royal residence. Later rulers added more floors and adornments to this Mahal. Anup Singh, who administered from 1669–98, made considerable augmentations to the fortification complex, with new royal residences and the Zenana quarter (regal dwelling for females). He renovated the Karan Mahal with a Diwan-I’m (public crowd lobby) and considered it the Anup Mahal. Gaj Singh who managed from 1746 to 1787 restored the Chandra Mahal (the Moon royal residence). Following him, Surat Singh managed from 1787 to 1828 and he richly brightened the crowded lobby (see the picture in data box) with glass and exuberant paintwork. Dungar Singh who ruled from 1872 to 1887 constructed the Badal Mahal (the climate royal residence) named so considering a canvas of falling precipitation and mists (an uncommon occasion in dry Bikaner). Ganga Singh who was administered from 1887 to 1943 fabricated the Ganga Niwas Palace, which has towers at the passage deck. This royal residence was planned by Sir Samuel Swinton Jacob. Ganga Singh’s child Sadul Singh succeeded his dad in 1943 however agreed to the Union of India in 1949. He passed on in 1950. 

Bikaner went under the suzerainty of the British Raj under an arrangement of centrality endorsed in 1818, whereafter the Maharajas of Bikaner contributed intensely to repairing their Junagarh fortification. In any case, during the eighteenth century, before this arrangement was endorsed, there was the internecine conflict between leaders of Bikaner and Jodhpur and furthermore among other Thakur, which was put somewhere near the British soldiers. It is accounted for that during the assault by Jodhpur armed force, of the two doorways to the fortress (one in the east and the other in the west), the eastern passage and the southern bulwark were harmed; signs of cannonballs terminated are seen on the southern façade of the fortification. 

Ganga Singh was the most popular lord among the Rajasthan rulers. A top choice of the British Raj, he procured the title of Knight Commander of the Star of India. He filled in as an individual from the Imperial War Cabinet, addressed the country at the Imperial First World War Conferences and the British Empire at the Versailles Peace Conference, and knew about the shift of fortunes in World War II yet kicked the bucket in 1943, preceding the conflict was won by the partners. His commitment to the structure movement in Junagarh included separate corridors for the public and private crowd in the Ganga Mahal and a durbar lobby for formal capacities. The lobby where he held his Golden Jubilee as a leader of Bikaner is currently a historical center. He likewise got another castle – north of Junagarh fortification – planned and worked by Swinton, the third of the new royal residences worked in Bikaner and named it Lalgarh Palace for the sake of his dad and moved his home from Junagarh post to this royal residence in 1902. The regal family actually lives in an uncommon suite in the Lalgarh castle, which they have changed over into a legacy lodging.


The massive fort inbuilt the plains of Bikaner features a rectangular (quadrangular) layout with a peripheral length of one,078 yards (986 m). The fort walls square measure fourteen.5 feet (4.4 m) wide and four0 feet (12 m) tall. It encompasses a locality of sixty-three,119 sq. yards (5.28 ha). It absolutely was enclosed by a trench that was 20–25 feet (6.1–7.6 m) deep with a base breadth of fifteen feet (4.6 m) and a high breadth of thirty feet (9.1 m). However, the trench did not exist. The fort is well fortified with thirty-seven bastions (‘burj’ in native language) and 7 gates (two square measure main gates) to counter enemy attacks. The fort was engineered as a “new stronghold” outside of the ruins of AN previous fort engineered by Rao Bika and on the fringe of the Bikaner town walls (1.5 kilometers (0.93 mi) from the town center), the previous fort was dismantled a century when it absolutely was engineered. The fort with seven gates contains many palaces, pavilions, and plenty of temples of Hindu and faith religions – the earliest dated to the sixteenth century. A serious feature of the fort is that the stone carving exhausted red and gold-colored sandstones. The interiors of the palace square measure adorned and painted in ancient Rajasthani vogue. The Junagarh palaces have an outsized range of rooms, as each king engineered his own separate set of rooms, not eager to board his predecessors’ rooms. These structures were thought of as “at par with those of Louis’s France or of Imperial Russia”. many sorts of types of architecture square measure discerned within the fort advanced and therefore it’s known as a real depiction of composite culture. The earliest vogue is of Rajpoot design, outlined by Gujarati and Mughal study influence reflecting the association with Mughal rulers, the second kind is of semi-western design reflective British influence, and at last, the revivalists’ Rajpoot design that evolved notably throughout the rule of prince Ganga Singh. solely the foremost representative of of these {architectural|discipline|subject|subject square measurea|subject field|field|field of study|study|bailiwick|branch of knowledge|fine arts|beaux arts} designs are on show for guests. Thus, the distinctive monuments on show within the Junagarh Fort represent sixteen sequential generations of the rulers of Bikaner, ranging from the tip of the sixteenth century.


While the most entry gate was Karan political leader or Parole, facing east, the present gate of entry is named Suraj political leader (meaning the Sun Gate), ‘pol’ additionally informally wheat pool, inbuilt gold-colored or yellow arenaceous rock, in contrast to the opposite gates and buildings inbuilt red arenaceous rock. it’s the east-facing gate allowing the rising Sun’s rays to fall on the gate, that is taken into account a decent omen. The doors of this gate square measure strong with iron spikes ANd studs to forestall ramming by elephants throughout an attack. At the doorway to the gate, 2 red stone statues of elephants with mahouts stand as sentinels. The gate was additionally the situation for saying the arrival and departure of royalty by musicians taking part in the trumpet from a gallery within the gate. The opposite gates square measure Karan political leader, Daulat Pol, Chand political leader (a double gate), and Fateh Pol; these provided access to varied monuments within the fort. The Karan political leader gate is additionally braced with iron spikes to forestall the fight of the gate by elephants. To the correct of this gate is Daulat political leader. 41 hand imprints square measure seen on the Daulat political leader gate wall, in red color, of the wives of the Maharajas of Bikaner, United Nations agency committed Sati (self-immolation) on the observance pyres of their husbands United Nations agency died in battle.

Between the most gate and also the palace, there’s a quadrangle, and so another gate is known as the Tripolia gate (triple gateway) before accessing the royal chambers. Next to the present gate maybe a little temple known as the Har Mandir, wherever the royal line is accustomed to providing worship. within the quadrangle, that homes an outsized collapsible shelter with a water pool inbuilt Carrara Italian marble. The Karan Mahal, wherever a public audience was controlled within the Diwan-i-Am by Karan Singh (1631–39) and his successors until the twentieth century, maybe seen within the same quadrangle


Karan Mahal

 (Public Audience Hall) was engineered by Karan Singh in c.1680 to mark his success over the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. it’s thought of jointly as one of the foremost exquisite palaces engineered with gardens, that displays the aesthetic sensibilities of the royalty of Rajasthan. it’s glass windows and in an elaborate way inscribed balconies inbuilt stone and wood fluted columns. Later Rajas, Anup Singh, and Surat Singh, additionally added heaps of glitter to the present palace with decorated polychrome glass, knotty mirror patterns, and red and gold paint. Within the initiation chamber, there’s a shored-up bay that was used as a throne.

Phool Mahal

Is the oldest part of the palace and was engineered by King Raja Rai Singh of Bikaner, a United Nations agency dominated between 1571-1668.

Anup Mahal

Anup Mahal may be a multi-story structure, that functioned because of the body headquarters of the dominion. it’s ornate picket ceilings with decorated mirrors, Italian tiles, and fine lattice windows and balconies. it’s some gold foil paintings. it’s thought of jointly as the “grandest constructions”. 

Chandra Mahal

Chandra Mahal has the foremost luxurious area within the palace, which homes gold-plated deities and paintings decorated with precious stones. within the royal bedchamber, mirrors are strategically placed so the prince might see from his bed, any interloper coming into his area.

 Ganga Mahal

Ganga Mahal was inbuilt in the twentieth century by the Ganga Singh United Nations agency reigned for fifty-six years from 1887 to 1943, featuring a massive room hall referred to as the Ganga Singh Hall that homes the depository. The depository has exhibits of war aggregation and additionally a war I plane (biplane), that is expressed to be maintained.

Badal Mahal

Badal Mahal (The weather palace) is an element of the Anup Mahal extensions. it’s paintings of Shekhawati Dundlod chiefs paying respects to the prince of Bikaner in several sorts of turbans. Photos of individuals standing on nails, wood, swords, and saws are portrayed here – a show of religion and endurance. The walls during this palace depict fresco paintings of the Hindu god Krishna and his consort Radha amidst the rain clouds.

Bikaner Haveli

Bikaneri Havelies set each at intervals and out of doors, the fort within the Bikaner city’s by lanes are of distinctive {architectural style|style of design|type of architecture|art form} in home architecture. Aldous Huxley United Nations agency visited these Havelis reportedly aforementioned “They square measure the pride of Bikaner.

Fort depository

The depository at intervals of the fort known as the Junagarh Fort depository was established in 1961 by prince Dr.Karni Singhji below the management of “Maharaja Rai Singhji Trust”. The depository exhibits Sanskritic language and Persian manuscripts, miniature paintings, jewels, royal costumes, farmans (royal orders), portrait galleries, costumes, headgear and dresses of gods’ idols, enamelware, silver, palanquins, howdahs, and war drums. The depository additionally displays an armory that consists of 1 of the various collections of post-medieval arms.

Maharaja Rai Singhji Trust 

Maharaja Rai Singhji Trust has been found out by the ‘Royal family of Bikaner’ with the fundamental objective to showcase the fort with skilled inputs in numerous areas and to boost the expertise of guests. Another objective is to market education and analysis scholarships, cultural activities, putting in of libraries, and integration with alternative such trusts.


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